History of the Dutta cult

Chapter 1

Enigma of the Datta Incarnation

Theogony is an important factor in the study of culture. Deity becomes conceptualized through individual and collective thinking and is indeed the final crystallization of ages-long contemplation. Therefore, an inquiry into the origin and development of godhead, as vivid symbols of inspirations and aspirations of any people, is an indispensable indicator of the emotional and intellectual growth of that culture.   

Just as Indra is the god of valour in the Vedas, essentially occasioned by the human need to prevail over external enemies, Datta is the deity of the middle-ages that symbolizes the human need to conquer the enemy within – the self - through spiritual enlightenment.

It is a result of profound Indian thought, representing at once highly developed conceptualization and deepest mysticism. It symbolizes a rare – if not unique – breadth of mystical vision and sagacious understanding, for which reason it commands unhesitating devotion.

The ‘Datta’ deity is a unique creation of the cultural development of India. Its worship has continued for over a thousand years, especially in Maharashtra.  It incorporates within its singular inclusivity Shaiva, Vaishnava and Shakta inspirations, and draws devotees not just from every persuasion within the Hindu fold but, transcending religious barriers, it even has Muslim votaries. All the four main cultist traditions, viz. Mahanubhav, Nath, Varkari and Samartha, profess deep devotion to this deity.

In the author’s observation, the origin of the concept can be historically traced to the rapid expansion of the Bhakti cult that characterized the 1st Millennium of the Common Era, when the times were preoccupied by churning, experimenting and clashing of thinking in India.  Buddhism had, at this time, assumed a stringent ritualistic manner, which modes had been readily adapted by Hindu persuasions, too. Distinguished thinkers from the Hindu, Budhhist and Jain traditions, in their rebellion against orthodoxy, were marked in their work by their criticism of the Vedas, a disregard of caste consciousness, emphasis on yogic practices, the overriding stress they laid on the imperativeness of the guru (or teacher), and a kind of laissez-faire propensity in their contemplative skills.  Indeed, orthodoxy was perturbed, but it has always been remarkably flexible to initially retreat in the face of rebellion and partially surrender.  Then, by expanding its own being, it has usually assimilated into itself every such heterodoxy, as may be seen time and again in Indian history. Sanatan Indian thought has remained intact, right from Upanishadic times, by ensuring a peaceful coexistence through reasoned dialogue and accommodation between orthodoxy and heterodoxy.  As will be seen in due course, the same conflict and understanding between the two schools came into play in the evolution of the Datta concept; all that turbulence and conciliation may be found clearly reflected in its origin and development.

Datta in Classical / Puranic Literature

Incarnation of Vishnu, Parents, Birth: All sources agree that Datta is offspring of Atri and Anasuya, but opinion is divided on whether he was actually conceived and delivered by Anasuya.

The Vanaparva, Shantiparva and Anushasanparva of the Mahabharata mention Datta. In 91.4-5 of the last source, a notable reference to his progeny, son Nimi and grandson Shrimaan, is not corroborated elsewhere in literature. However, this need not be taken to imply that Datta led the life of a householder, but only that he had his ‘shakti’ as consort.

The Agnipuran (275.5) states that Kartaveerya Arjun, who derived his powers and prowess through Datta’s grace, was made the medium through whom Datta fulfilled his life’s mission. That mission is briefly described in the Brahmapuran (213.106-112) and more elaborately in the Vishnudharmottarpuran (1.25.6-16)

The Markandeyapuran gives an account of how Som (the Moon), Datta and Durvas were born to Atri respectively by the grace of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh, and how Datta, to escape the constant company and indulgent attention of his siblings and others, submerged himself in a lake. But, observing that they would not tire in their continued vigil awaiting his return from the depths, he emerged in the company of a damsel beauteous beyond imagination, in the hope that they would shun him, for was the monastically unthinkable act of associating with a woman. Even this did not deter them in their adulation. So Datta began drinking wine in her company. The puran makes an astonishing statement that ‘one who is master of all yogas is free from the blame of unbecoming conduct even if he imbibes wine or immerses himself in the pleasures of woman and music’. Shivakalyan, Dayarnava and others, commentators in Marathi of the 10th Skandha (section, book) of the Bhagwat, justify this seemingly perverse conduct in the same terms.

A broad survey of the accounts related to the advent of Datta appearing in the purans reveals that he is considered an incarnation of Vishnu, finding mention in the Ahirbudhnya Samhita of the Panchratra cult. He is the offspring of Atri and Anasuya. With minor variations, the story of his birth appears in the Bhagwat, Brahmapuran, Vayupuran, Brahmandapuran, Koormapuran, the Anushasanparva of the Mahabharat, Bhavishyapuran, etc. (The last makes decidedly more explicit mention of Datta’s seemingly improper conduct.) The 40th verse of the 5th mandala of the Rigveda, which gives an account of how the Sun was saved from the harassment of Rahu, lends support to the story of the birth of Datta. This is one instance of how Atri began to be connected with the story from Vedic times. Thorough research into the antecedents of all such stories of the genesis of Datta as well as other popular deities might yield information that would be both enlightening and interesting.

Mentors: Datta came to be identified with the ‘Avadhoot’ of the Ekadsha Skandha of the Bhagwat, although Bhaskarbhat Borikar, Marathi commentator of the Bhagwat (the ‘Udhhava Geeta’), does not say that Avadhoot and Dattatreya are identical.  This identification only became manifest the first time after Borikar in Eknath’s commentary on the Ekadasha, which mentions the 24 mentors of Avadhoot in the biography of Datta.  Indeed, although the Bhagwat itself is clear about Datta being Vishnu’s incarnation, its authors do not indicate anywhere that Avadhoot is the same as Datta. It was perhaps because Datta resembled Avadhoot and since the latter name was an alias of Datta, Eknath seems to have portrayed Avadhoot as Datta in consequence of his devotional faith.

Indicating that animate and inanimate Creation as a whole is the real mentor of the seeker and enumerating the various qualities and virtues essential for the quest, the Ekadasha Skandha of the Bhagwat (Chapters 7 to 9) deals with 24 mentors of Avadhoot.

Disciples: All his disciples except one - the Brahmin, Sankruti (mentioned in Avadhootopanishad and Jabaladarshanopanishad) - are kshatreeyas. They are Sahasrarjun Kartaveerya, Bhargav Parashuram, Yadu, Alarka, Ayu and Pralhad.

Abode and Places of Sojourn: Datta, on Atri’s directions, is believed to have acquired enlightenment through Shiva worship on the banks of the Gautami river. His monastery used to be located in the Prayag forest near Simhachala. Being self- willed in sojourning, he moves anywhere he wishes, but devotees believe he visits Mahur, Panchaleshwar and Kolhapur, and that he bathes at Panchaleshwar and seeks alms at Kolhapur.

Incarnations: In addition to the 16 classically acknowledged incarnations (which are listed in the book), the Datta cultist tradition considers Dasopant as the 17th. The first incarnation in historical times was Shripad Shrivallabh and the second was Shri Narasimha Saraswati, although Swami Maharaj of Akkalkot and Shri Manikprabhu are also regarded incarnations.

Inspiration to Literature: Avadhootopanishad and Jabaldarshanopanishad state they are inspired by Datta. So does the cultist scripture, Avadhoot Geeta, Tripuropastipadhhati and Parashuramakalpasootram are tantric treatises attributed to inspiration from Datta. The last is considered the very quintessence of tantrism in the Datta cultist tradition.

Datta in Post-Classical Literature

Additions, in post-classical times, to the established number of ten Upanishads gave rise to well over 200 treatises, each of the new ones seeking to rationalize one or another school of thought with the pretense that these possessed support of the shruti (i.e. the Vedas). Interestingly, authors of such new ‘upanishads’ utilized classical narrative styles, language and references to names of rishis (sages) like Aaruni, Yadnyavalkya in order to impart make-believe antiquity to their work. Determining their period of creation, thus, becomes a difficult task.

But internal evidence in these works shows how they are riddled with inconsistencies that betray their pretense at antiquity. For example, reference therein to deities that are definitely known to have evolved only in the middle age, is one such logical lacuna.

Dattatreya is regarded by the Shaankardigvijay (9.22) as teacher of the Yog philosophy; Kapil, Dattatreya, Vyas and Shankar are viewed as mentors respectively of the four yugas (eras): Satya, Dwapar, Treta and Kali. Scholars believe that the Yog Upanishads, into which general category treatises pertaining to Dattatreya are classed, came to be composed at the very end of the Upanishadic period. The accomplished researcher Dr.Dyson (‘Philosophy of Upanishats’) includes them in the Aatharvan Upanishad. Close examination leads one to surmise that many of these late Upanishads were composed under the influence of Gorakhnath’s ‘Nath Cult’, or at least under that of the earlier ‘sidhha’ culture that had developed as a result of Yoga and Tantra all over India. It might not be unrealistic to conjecture, from the fact that Gorakhnath lived between 1,050 and 1,150 CE, that these late Upanishads were most likely to have been composed between the 5th and 10th Century of the Common Era. It is pertinent to note that a relation of the Nath Cult with Dattatreya is presumed. The Gorakshasidhhantasangraha, which is a comprehensive treatise on the Goraksha persuasion, uses as standard, many references from the Yoga philosophy.

The following five Upanishads make mention of Dattatreya. Composed before 1000 CE, they may be grouped, from the aspect of the subject of this book, in the purana period.

  • Shandilyopanishad: Contains description of Dattatreya
  • Bhikshukopanishad: Classifies mendicants into 4 groups – kutichaka, bahudaka, hansa and paramahansa. Dattatreya is included in the last.
  • Avadhootopanishad: The virtues, characteristics and traits of Avadhoot, as narrated by Dattatreya to Sankruti, are the subject of this treatise.
  • Jabaladarshanopanishad: This is a quintessence of the ashtangayoga system.
  • Dattatreyopanishad: Contains mantras (incantations) with Dattatreya as the invoked deity.

A study of all five gives us the following information:

  • Dattatreya is offspring of Atri and Anasuya
  • Dattatreya is an incarnation of Vishnu as a result of Atri’s meditational effort.
  • Dattatreya is Vishnu personified, has four arms and one head.
  • Despite being Vishnu incarnate, he is an avadhoot, digambar yogi who sojourns freely at will.
  • Sankruti was a Brahmin disciple of Dattatreya and being highly enlightened, was accorded the title ‘mahamuni’ (great sage)

We may conclude, therefore, that, till the time of composition of these Upanishads (i.e. 1000 CE), Dattatreya had not acquired the physical attribute of trimurti (or three headed icon). Although an avatar of Vishnu, he is an avadhoot, digambar yogi teaching the guru-centric yoga system, transcending the limitations of space and caste.

Dattatreya and Shakta Tantrism

Despite the rationalization of Dattatreya’s un-monastic conduct appearing in the Markandeyapuran, it seems that the deity has its origins in a shakta-tantric milieu.

The Tripurarahasya also gives the same rationalization.

Dattatreya enjoys the highest place among composers of Shakta tantric literature. It is an article of common faith that the worship of Tripurasundari was established by Datatreya. The section known as ‘Dnyanakhanda’ in the tantric treatise, Tripurarahasya, is in the form of a dialogue between Dattatreya and Bhargava. A second authoritative tome on Tripurasundari worship, the Parashuramakalpasutra, also believed to be Dattatreya-inspired, is a veritable digest in the area of shrividya or shakta worship. Several commentaries on this treatise are extant: a) the Nityotsavah (1775 CE) by Umanandanath, a Maharashtriyan Brahmin belonging to the Vishwamitra gotra, received patronage of the Royal Court of Tanjavur. He was disciple of the renowned authority on Tantrism, Bhasurananda; b) Rameshwar, who wrote the Saubhagyodayah (1831 CE), was a prime disciple also of Bhasurananda; c) the relatively recent (1878 CE) Sootratatvavimarshini by Lakshmanshastri Ranade; an extract from the Tripurarahasya is reproduced in this commentary to explain how the Parashuramakalpasutra was composed to render an easy-to-understand abstract of the 18,000 stanza Tripuropastipadhhati attributed to Dattatreya.

The sum and substance of this is the possibility that Tripurasundari worship was originally formulated by Dattatreya. Experts are of the opinion that this form of worship originated in the South and then spread northwards up to and including Kashmir. If certain miscellaneous compositions attributed to Shankaracharya are truly his, they indicate he was a Shakta devotee of Tripurasundari. Two devotional pieces explicating shakti may be found in the very popular Saundaryalahari, which is regarded as his creation.  

In late Upanishads like the Tripuratapinyupanishad and Tripuropanishad, the deity has been variously called Mahalakshmi, Renuka, Bhuvaneshwari, etc.

The name, ‘Matangi’, appearing in the Nityotsava, closely resembles the ‘Matangamunikanyaka’ in Shankaracharya’s invocation.

Thus, time - honoured sacred places of Dattatreya worship in Maharashtra like Mahur, Kolhapur and Audumbar, primarily are ancient centers of shakta worship.

It would appear from all of this that Dattatreya was a creation of the Tripurasundari worshipping shakta tradition and was deified during the final phases of the purana period. Dattatreya, who is referred in the Mahabharata and Magha’s Shishupalvadha as ‘belonging to the Atri clan’, must have been ‘made’ Atri’s son in the puranas while his disciple, Parashurama, must have been ‘made’ ‘Bhargava’ Parashurama.

Of course, this is only nebulous conjecture, but could become a subject of comparative research of the puranas and tantric treatises for scholars engaged in fundamental study.

While it is difficult to establish an accurate time frame for the puranas or the sequence of additions thereto, an examination of such references in these texts to puranic tales makes the burden of research a shade lighter. As an example, a reference in Shri Harsha’s Naishadheeyacharita to Dattatreya in connection with Sahasrarjun and Alarka confirms that the Dattatreya story was pre-existent to both.

Iconology

According to G.H.Khare, only three classical texts refer to the iconic form of Dattatreya: Agnipuran, Dattatreyakalpa and Vishnudharmottarpuran. No classical sculptures are extant to facilitate an accurate impression of the physical form. Gopinath Rao’s contention, also shared by T.N.Srinivasan, that sculpting Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh in conjunction with one another in a single idol was a form of depicting Dattatreya, does not appear correct. Dattatreya had not acquired the ‘trimurti / trimukhi’ (three-in-one idol / three - headed) form even in the final phases of the Upanishadic period. However, it is not impossible that such classical trimukhi sculptures might have influenced the creation of the concept of the trimukhi Datta.

Khare’s description of an idol believed to be Dattatreya’s at Badami, in which the nandi (bull) occupies the central position among ‘vehicles’ of the three deities Brahma (the swan), Vishnu (the eagle) and Mahesh (the bull), indicates that the idol actually depicts the last deity.

It may be concluded that no idol that can be said to be Dattatreya’s with any degree of certainty, is extant. However, research on an 11th Century sculpture preserved in a museum in Calcutta will add significantly to our knowledge of Datta iconology.

A reason for the absence of classical Datta idols is perhaps the fact that the developing concept of that deity had not fully matured till about 1,000 CE, and it was only when the parallel evolution of narratives in literature on the one hand and of the trimukhi icon on the other had united, that a stable and completed conceptualization of a three- headed and six- armed icon emerged.

Dattatreya and the Trimukhi Concept

Much at variance with classical descriptions in the Mahabharata, the Purans and the late upanishads, the icon of Datta we universally see today, is the trimurti.  Classical iconography as well as the form worshipped by Dattatreya’s first devotee known historically, Changdeo Raul (1150 – 1220 CE), is single - headed. When did the concepts of Dattatreya deity and the trimukhi deity converge? Does this convergence have any philosophical basis?

Triumvirates in traditional Indian philosophy represent the Brahma-Vishnu-Mahesh divinity, the creation-sustenance-destruction states, and the sattva-raja-tama characteristics. Of the three divinities, the Vedas know only Vishnu and Rudra, both being of little significance compared with Indra, who is the most important. It is thus clear that Brahma was a post-Vedic development and that the Vedas do not contemplate the triumvirate. The earliest reference to any triumvirate at all, appears in the Maitrayani Samhita: Agni (fire), Vayu (the wind/air) and Surya (the Sun). The first mention of Brahma-Vishnu-Mahesh trinity appears in the Maitrayani Upanishad, regarded as the earliest among all upanishads.

The deification of Shiva had already occurred in the pre-Vedic Indus valley civilization.  Excavations at Mohenjodaro provide evidence of a possibility that Shiva was worshipped in the form of both the linga and icon. A merger of the Rudra of the Vedas with pre-Vedic linga worship resulted in the Shiva deity of the Upanishadic period. A three - headed idol of Shiva found in Mohenjodaro depicts three states namely, creation-sustenance-destruction.

This three - headed idol is merely a representation of the three states mentioned above. It is not a symbol of the merger of three distinct deities. Shiva idols as well as numismatic evidence are likewise found across the length and breadth of the sub-continent, even as far as Balkh under the Kushan-Sassanian rule.

It is possible that the Brahma-Vishnu-Mahesh triad evolved by emulation / imitation of the trimukhi Shiva. Iconological descriptions abound in treatises like Uttarakamikagam, Roopavatar, Roopamandan and Shilparatna. Slight differences may be observed in the trimukhi sculptures themselves according to the principal deity sought to be portrayed – they are Brahma-centric, Vishnu-centric or Shiva-centric.

The Maitrayani Upanishad states that Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh are manifestations of the same inexpressible truth and symbolize the three gunas, viz. sattva, raja and tama. The Brahmopanishad, Rudrahridayopanishad, Maitrayani Upanishad, Ramottaratapini Upanishad and Pranagnihotra Upanishad mention the same concept with some slight variations. Each philosophical tradition in the middle period began enunciating that the triad was integral with its own specific concept of divinity, which led to the natural to their glorification, inseparability and union.

‘Three’ being a popular theme in the Indian psyche, the Brahma-Vishnu-Mahesh triad took root in indigenous tradition. There are several concepts that Indian thought expressed in triads, and this three-in-one deity has become its lofty symbol. Dr. Vasudev Sharan Agrawal states that the vastness of Indian philosophy is mirrored in the Trimurti.

It seems that the concepts of Dattatreya and the Trimurti must have merged sometime between the 13th and 15th Centuries because Saraswati Gangadhar’s ‘Gurucharitra’ (biography of Dattatreya), written during the latter, propounds the trimurti form. The reason for this can be traced in the Bhagawat. It is no wonder that the collective Indian psyche, with its long tradition of theistic veneration, soon mingled the concepts of the divine triad and Dattatreya, who is believed to be born as a result of the grace of the triad. This must have occurred sometime during or a couple of centuries before the advent of Narasimha Saraswati (or around the 13th Century C.E.).

The ‘Triadic’ Dattatreya and his Enlightened Votaries

 Although the Gurucharitra (circa 1550 C.E.) and the invocation in verse by Eknath (1523 – 1599 C.E.) mention the trimukhi form of Dattatreya, universal acceptance of the form and corresponding recession of the single-headed classical concept did not go hand in hand. It may be observed that enlightened votaries of the Dattatreya cult who followed the tradition of the Gurucharitra and drew inspiration for their devotion from Narsoba Wadi, contemplated a single- headed Dattatreya. Dasopant (1551 – 1615 C.E.), a contemporary of Eknath, was inspired by a single- headed but six armed Dattatreya. Curiously, while the triadic form was becoming popular, remnants of the traditional form were equally venerable.

Niranjan Raghunath (1782 – 1855 C.E.) and his mentor, Raghunathswami, also venerated the single - headed, six - armed form. Niranjan Raghunath is credited with the works Swatmapracheeti and Sakshatkar. A Dattatreya idol, which Niranjan Raghunath consecrated inside the Miraj fort at the behest of Balasaheb Patwardhan (the elder), is single - headed and six - armed. So is the idol that was installed by Narayan Maharaj Jalwankar of Jhansi (1793 – 1868 C.E.) at Dewas.

Vasudevanand Saraswati alias Tembe Swami (1854 – 1914 C.E.), regarded as enlightened through Dattatreya worship, also promoted the single - headed form.

Besides these instances, the monastery of Shri Ganganath Maharaj in Pune also has a single -headed idol. Knowledgeable sources state that the Dattatreya temple at Bhatgaon in Nepal also has a single - headed idol.

In fact, some 50 years ago, Kumta Narayanacharya published his Guruparamparamrit in which he criticizes as heretics worshippers of the three - headed, six - armed form.

The Developed Form
Descriptions may be found in the Gurucharitra as well as in works of saint-poet, Tukaram. The following attributes find elaboration and discussion in the book:

  • The three heads
  • Arms
  • Weapons
  • Complexion
  • Attire
  • The cow and dog
  • Place of rest under the Audumbar tree

Enigma of the Incarnation

Sources for information about the incarnation are three: Purans, Upanishads and Tantric literature. Similarities and differences (despite later assimilation of opinions) in the conceptual form and manner of worship continue to exist even today in the traditions espoused by these three sources.

According to Tantric sources, Dattatreya is principally regarded as the originator of Tripuradevi worship. The word ‘tripura’ itself is meant to signify the eternal shakti (energy) which preexisted the triad Brahma-Vishnu-Mahesh, and Dattatreya is viewed as the one who comprehends the enigma of that shakti. The name ‘Atri’ itself means one who denies the notion of three gods and promotes the essential unity of deity. One feels that Dattatreya’s dual role - Atri’s son and exponent of the Tripura enigma - indicate the same singular quality. The extraordinary importance commanded by Dattatreya in the area of tantrism should not surprise us if we consider the fact that it is believed he indulged in – yet remained uncorrupted by – a code of spiritualism that did not prohibit the enjoyment of wine, woman and song; created an exemplary ideal for engaging in spiritual quest with complete absence of caste-consciousness; established superiority of the ‘guru’ (mentor) institution; demonstrated the primacy of actual personal reason and experience over scriptural dictates.

Gorakshanath founded the Nath Sampradaya (cult) for the purpose of ridding spiritual practices of the perversion that the tantric tradition had (one might say, naturally) undergone in the 10th Century. He retained from the tantric persuasion all that was reasonable, like primacy of the Shiva-Shakti concept, emphatic promotion of the greatness of the ‘guru’ institution, non-duality, reliance on actual experience rather than scripture, and the ultimate aim of attaining the avadhoot state (beyond all worldly lures). Gorakshanath’s extraordinary personality, remarkable yogic ability and deep-seated intellectualism brought about this transformation within a short time. Quite understandably, Dattatreya, as one of the great exponents of tantrism, must have commanded veneration among Gorakshnath’s growing following. Even cursory comparison of yogic literature and texts attributed to Dattatreya reflects this transformation. Indeed, practices considered undesirable like consumption of intoxicants or association with the female have been condemned in verse 26 of the 8th Chapter of the Avadhootageeta, a work believed to be inspired by Dattatreya.

Dattatreya worship spread over the entire country along with the expansion of the Nath Sampradaya. Places of Dattatreya pilgrimage like Girnar and Bhatgaon (Nepal) are testimony to this occurrence.

Although the yogic-tantric form of Dattatreya might be said to be quite secure in the puranas, it still appears rather different. The sanatan (orthodox) Vedic tradition, according to its innate proclivity for integration, must have become poised to assimilate Dattatreya within its orthodoxy when, on the one hand, the deification process through the puranas had reached its culmination and, on the other, the Dattatreya deity had been popularized all over India by the Nath Sampradaya.

This does not necessarily mean that the transformation of the deity strictly followed the sequence: Tantrism → Nath Sampradaya → Puranas. First gaining acceptance and popularity in tantric tradition, Dattatreya began to be viewed by puranic convention as an incarnation of Vishnu, to be then upheld as the symbol of the ‘guru’ order in the Nath Sampradaya. The Dattatreya of the latter persuasion, therefore, owes its genesis to tantric, not puranic thought. In the ideological conflict between the Nath and the tantric traditions, the former drew support from the Dattatreya concept to bring about conciliation between the two streams.

While an admixture of the tantric and puranic Dattatreya may be observed in the Mahanubhav Sect, which came into being after the Nath Sampradaya, what we find in the Datta Sampradaya, inspired by the life work of Shri Narasimha Saraswati, is an entirely purana-inspired form. It is this form that is today venerated all over Maharashtra.

It would seem that references in the Mahabharata bolster puranic attempts to impart an aura of classical vintage to Dattatreya. However, such references are now known to be later additions. The mention of Dattatreya as divinity-incarnate in connection with the killing of Shishupala (which experts agree was c. 650 C.E.), however, is conclusive justification to presume that Dattatreya was deified a few centuries before that event.

The advent of Dattatreya cannot be moved to pre-Common Era times. However, the significance of deity is not a function of its antiquity, but rather of its influence on public opinion, it ability to attract votaries and the extent to which it becomes the subject of profound deliberation in the discourse of contemporary scholars.

Parallel to the historical study of the deity, there have been attempts to view it from the aspect of its symbolical / allegorical potential as well. Notable commentators include Dr.S.K.Phadke, Pandit Mahadeoshastri Joshi and Shri Parnerkar Maharaj.

 

 
 

 
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